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Blood Pressure Cholestrol Diabetes        
  Overview  |  Diagnosis  |  Treatment
Overview

Diabetes mellitus is defined as fasting blood glucose of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more.In simple words, our body turns sugar (glucose) into energy. When your body does not make enough insulin or use insulin properly, it is called as Diabetes.

Malfunctioning of hormones, insulin, is called Diabetes. Insulin helps to make proper use of the food we eat to release energy. The food taken in by us is broken down into glucose and other simple sugars. The glucose thus produced enters the blood stream; and the insulin released by the pancreas puts glucose into your cells which is used as fuel.

The newly arrived glucose cannot be stored and will remain in your blood stream, If you lack insulin, or your insulin is unable to perform properly. This leads to increase in the blood sugar level, which in turn leads to Diabetes. If remained untreated, diabetes can also cause damage to your eyes, heart, nerves and kidneys.

There is also a "Pre-diabetes" is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and have one of these conditions:

Impaired fasting glucose (110 to 125 mg/dL)

Impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose less than 126 mg/dL and a glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL two hours after taking an oral glucose tolerance test)

Type 2 diabetes occurs when it develops when the body doesn't make enough insulin and doesn't efficiently use the insulin it makes (insulin resistance). Type 2diabetes is the most common form which is increasing rapidly day by day. It appears mostly in middle-aged adults; however, it’s more shocking to know that adolescents and young adults are developing type2 diabetes at a shocking rate.

Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin. It is usually occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes people have to compulsorily take insulin injections daily
Diabetes whether type 1 or type 2 is hereditary. This could be one factor which increases the risk of developing diabetes. If diabetes is untreated, it may lead to many serious medical problems, like blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, limb amputations and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

There are many medicines available to keep the glucose level under control; but still there is risk of heart diseases and stroke. In fact, most diabetes people die due to some heart disorders.

Lack of insulin usually results in Pre-diabetes and subsequent type 2 diabetes. When insulin resistance or diabetes occur with other CVD risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides, the risk of heart disease and stroke rises even more.

The doctor prescribes changes in food charts, weight control and exercise programs, and even drugs to the diabetes patient to keep blood sugar level in control. The diabetes patient should strictly follow the prescriptions given by the doctor to keep diabetes in control and avoid any other risk factors.

Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart disease, which includes heart attack. It's especially important to control weight and blood cholesterol with a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet along with regular exercise. It's also important to lower high blood pressure and not to smoke.

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Diagnosis

Blood sugar level is checked to see whether the person is diabetic or no. Usually the blood level of a normal person is 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

Diagnosing Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes
In general there are three different ways to diagnose diabetes:
   • If he or she has a blood sugar of 200 mg/dl or higher after drinking a special sugar solution. This test is called     an oral glucose tolerance test.
  • If he or she has symptoms of diabetes and high blood sugar. (High blood sugar is 200 mg/dL or higher.)
  • If he or she has a fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate days. A fasting blood sugar     test is done after the person taking the test has not had anything to eat or drink for at least eight hours before     blood is drawn.

There is also a condition in which a person has a blood sugar higher than normal but not high enough to have diabetes, he or she might have a problem called impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. This means a person is not having diabetes but is at a risk of getting it. In such case it is suggested to consult your doctor.

Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes
Insulin resistance during pregnancy is called as Gestational diabetes. If a pregnant woman's body cannot produce enough insulin to offset the increased resistance, the result is a high blood sugar level. It usually occurs in the latter part of pregnancy. Often gestational diabetes goes away after pregnancy. However, having gestational diabetes increases your risk of developing diabetes in the future.

While diagnosing gestational diabetes, a woman is asked to drink a glucose solution. One hour later, blood is drawn and the sugar level measured. If the level is at least 130 to 140 mg/dl, the woman may be asked to continue the test. In this case, blood will be drawn and tested several times during three hours. if the blood sugar level is higher than any of the two following levels:

  • 95 mg/dl before drinking the glucose solution

  • 180 mg/dl one hour after drinking the solution

  • 155 mg/dl two hours after drinking the solution

  • 140 mg/dl three hours after drinking the solution

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Treatment

Diabetes cannot be cured but if treated properly, your glucose can go down to normal levels,

Even if it’s not curable, it is treatable. It is important to know how to manage your blood glucose levels. Special diets, exercise, regular blood glucose testing and sometimes insulin injections and medication are included in your diets.

The main goal of all diabetes treatment and management is blood sugar control.

The blood pressure that is recommend should not exceed 130/80

  Normal Goal Needs to Improve if
Average fasting/before meal blood sugar
< 110 mg/dl 80-120 mg/dl < 80 or > 140 mg/dl
Average bedtime blood sugar < 120 mg/dl 100-140mg/dl < 100 or > 160 mg/dl
Glycosylated hemoglobin < 6% < 7% > 8%
 
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