Diabetes mellitus is defined as fasting blood
glucose of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more.In simple
words, our body turns sugar (glucose) into energy. When your body
does not make enough insulin or use insulin properly, it is called
Malfunctioning of hormones, insulin, is called Diabetes. Insulin
helps to make proper use of the food we eat to release energy. The
food taken in by us is broken down into glucose and other simple
sugars. The glucose thus produced enters the blood stream; and the
insulin released by the pancreas puts glucose into your cells which
is used as fuel.
The newly arrived glucose cannot be stored and will remain in your
blood stream, If you lack insulin, or your insulin is unable to
perform properly. This leads to increase in the blood sugar level,
which in turn leads to Diabetes. If remained untreated, diabetes
can also cause damage to your eyes, heart, nerves and kidneys.
There is also a "Pre-diabetes" is a condition in which
blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic.
People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type
2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and have one of these conditions:
Impaired fasting glucose (110 to 125 mg/dL)
Impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose less than 126 mg/dL
and a glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL two hours after taking
an oral glucose tolerance test)
Type 2 diabetes occurs when it develops when the body doesn't make
enough insulin and doesn't efficiently use the insulin it makes
(insulin resistance). Type 2diabetes is the most common form which
is increasing rapidly day by day. It appears mostly in middle-aged
adults; however, it’s more shocking to know that adolescents
and young adults are developing type2 diabetes at a shocking rate.
Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin. It is
usually occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes people
have to compulsorily take insulin injections daily
Diabetes whether type 1 or type 2 is hereditary. This could be one
factor which increases the risk of developing diabetes. If diabetes
is untreated, it may lead to many serious medical problems, like
blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, limb amputations and cardiovascular
There are many medicines available to keep the glucose level under
control; but still there is risk of heart diseases and stroke. In
fact, most diabetes people die due to some heart disorders.
Lack of insulin usually results in Pre-diabetes and subsequent
type 2 diabetes. When insulin resistance or diabetes occur with
other CVD risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, abnormal
cholesterol and high triglycerides, the risk of heart disease and
stroke rises even more.
The doctor prescribes changes in food charts, weight control and
exercise programs, and even drugs to the diabetes patient to keep
blood sugar level in control. The diabetes patient should strictly
follow the prescriptions given by the doctor to keep diabetes in
control and avoid any other risk factors.
Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart
disease, which includes heart attack. It's especially important
to control weight and blood cholesterol with a low-saturated-fat,
low-cholesterol diet along with regular exercise. It's also important
to lower high blood pressure and not to smoke.